Tuesday, December 28, 2010
(Updated 31.12.10 Just on the verge of the coming New Year, see below)
Where are the 40 years …?
Holidays in Horror!
Optimism for a peaceful development of the Ethiopian Community seems to diminish. About 40 years have elapsed since the aspiration of “Social Justice” has taken over the mind of the community; a communal mind-set full of contradictions and antagonisms, which brought about some initials of transformations, albeit non-peaceful and full of blunders on all sides; thereby calling for the hope of transformation into a peaceful mind-set and a rule of law for the community at large.
This hope is losing substance and it seems we are still at the beginning or at the edge of collapse/chaos (unless one dares to tell that this is the rule – “primitive accumulation” in cultural affairs as well).
The following two points give more reason to believe that we seem to be politically a lost case for the near future! (Still in the Box+!?)
(Given such facts, public formats and beautifully polished facades of public presentations are meaningless ! A pity for the other Prof. too: Endrias Eshete. )
The 1st Point:
On the side of the State/ Regime: The Horror report from prison : http://www.ethiomedia.com/augur/4316.html
All through the report, depiction of horror like the following:
“For six months his legs and feet were shackled in chains and he has repeatedly been exposed to electrocution (administration of electric current into his body by way of torture) which is now routinely carried out in TPLF controlled prisons. His left testicle has atrophied and disappeared altogether in consequence of the severe and repeated torture he sustained. In short he has been castrated like a bull (In the Ethiopian cultural context; a bull is castrated not by taking his testicles but by pounding on his testicles. It is in this context the word castration should be read in this report). Castrating a male person like a bull or animal is unheard of and did not take place even during the terrible days of the Dergue regime. Under the TPLF regime, this method of torture is widely practiced.”
(Devastating our national pride, in the last decades, all over the world, as if the association of the name “Ethiopia” with “Hunger” is not enough, and now Ethiopia with “the Beast”- Hale Luya (from a none-priest) !!!)
Even if a percent of the report is true! Even if there be some other purpose of partially inventing a story (I want to hope it is invented to stick to my principle of optimism) ; even if the security officers of Mellese have purposely disclosed such material (to rule by means of mere intimidation and a specter of fear in the community); be it what or not; it is as a community, the same mind-set and the same understanding of the “rule of law”. It is impoisoning to the community. The very mere fact (of depicting the story) or if it is true and authentic, the horror- is the most disturbing communal disaster (There is no reason not to believe that this may not be true too! There is enough testimony of the “beast in the man” in the global contemporary history of man); with all respect to the courageous people of such sublime character amidst the terrible stuff taking place in the dungeons – showing, that “we” are on the verge of collapse as a community, since there may even be some primordial stuff (cf.neuro-science has some new findings on perverted patterns of mind) playing a role in the psycho-stuff of the perpetrators sitting at the center of the state power…
The 2nd. Point:
On “Pardonning Dergue officials”; as one of the “opinion makers” in the diaspora, ” “one” professor`s ( a university philosophy professor in one of the “best” democratic nations of the globe ) plaidoyer, which reads as follows:
“I fully share in the pain of Mekonnen and support his demand for justice. In fact, I even go further demanding that the Ethiopian Government carry out its legal duty that those who had been sentenced to death be executed in public without further delay. However, some individuals such as Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, are living in exile, and such execution may not be carried out right away. There should be a way to carry out such justice not only to Mengistu but to all those hiding in foreign countries. In case of those brutal murderers who are under the control of the Ethiopian Government, individuals who had spilt so much innocent blood, execution should be carried out by hanging them from Bole Airport to Meskel Square and also in other Squares, on electric power poles. Some should also be sent to provincial cities and towns for such public execution.” (Even not gacious enough to grant them the US “electric execution-chair”)
After 40 years of “transformation”or (it seems more of) “none-transformation” , I have only “a smile” as an opinion on justice for such mind-sets.
An opinion on justice still calling for blood to flow, to bring about a community-“catharsis” :
” ‘catharsis’ that describes the psychological state of mind an individual undergoing such “catharsis.” The term can be roughly translated to mean “purification of” or “purging of” oneself from the pollution of the feeling of being a victim. In other words, it is not only “forgiveness” that allows the human inner self to clean itself of polluting feelings to move away from the confinement and negativity of victimhood, but properly conducted retaliation or “catharsis” would do as well. For the sake of our sanity and for the sake of the wellbeing of future generations we must punish criminals such as the brutal and violent convicted criminals of the Members of the Derg? ” (cf. http://www.ethiomedia.com/augur/4319.html)
Is there any difference between the “three” forms of mind-sets: The crimes of Dergue, the horror in the dungeons of Melesse’s Regime, and the execution-calls of the “professor”? (As the fourth mind-set, not to depict the cause of the tragedy – the social injustice/famine, destitution & poverty/ of the previous social order, which brought us in this mess, as a “crime of a different caliber”/1.)
I presume, this could be a case study- for a “ciminologist”/or more -of a social psycho-drama, which may lead to reflections on our primordial source/ ; letting for the moment Rene Girard speak on the theme of “Violence and the Mimetic Desire”:
Not only Rene Girard’s discourse but something more came over, just on the verge of the new year:
1) cf. The notes and the tones of “Wai Wai Silu”, Tilahun Gessesse(1974) are still vivid, at least for those who know at first hand, what famine is.
Update 31.12.10. Just on the verge of the coming New Year:
Not only Rene Girard’s discourse; but I stumbled into the following critical resume’ of Paul Osborn’s play “Morning’s at seven” which prompted me to reread the latter, anticipating the allegory and the context to our social drama confronting us in the coming years (and a propos a reflection indicating a civilized version of a social catharsis, devoid of “retaliation”, which is contaminating the social atmosphere of our community):
“In the final analysis, the Gibbs Sisters offer us proof that the pitfalls engendered by a lengthy family history of unresolved issues can be overcome, albeit with varying degrees of difficulty. By maintaining their faith in the strength of the family unit, the characters in Morning’s at Seven (and most real families) have the ability to brave the storm, and resurface with their bindings intact. The function of their dysfunction is catharsis, which results in a renewed understanding of what makes the others unique and deserving of love and respect. In the end, it purges the family of whatever bad blood exists, allowing them to overcome trouble in the worst of times. Most importantly, the final unearthing of their “skeletons in the closet” enables them to extend and appreciate the most important gifts they receive—understanding and forgiveness.“( my italics)
Since it is valuable for our reflections and allegorically relevant to our social context and our perceptions, I have reproduced it here as it is: Valuable to maintain the piece of optimism, which may be blocked somewhere in the mind or in the vibrating substance of our hearts.
The Function of Dysfunction“
The Function of Disfunction
By Lawrence Henley
From Insights, 2004
Paul Osborn’s 1939 play Morning’s at Seven explores the dynamics of four aging sisters living close together with their families in their longtime hometown. In fact, after five decades, three of them live in two next-to-each-other houses without a fence. A fourth sister lives just a couple of blocks down the street. Both yards and porches have, for decades, been the stage setting for all of the drama, comedy, and tragedy surrounding their lives. Along with it all, of course, has come a good deal of the emotional palette that goes hand-in-hand with many years of family living: secret love, fits of envy and jealousy, sympathy, caring, anger, and a harmonic disharmony.
If the enormity and complexity of these lives seem overwhelming and complicated to you, imagine the heaviness of the atmosphere hovering above these senior citizens. They have lived through it all decade after decade. Audiences are the lucky ones. They enjoy the opportunity to experience the slightly loony world of the Gibbs Sisters through two of the topsiest, turviest days a family could possibly have.
These four sisters, seeming to be frightfully simple at first glance, become much more complicated when a closer look is taken. These four women are as close-knit as a group of sisters can be, rarely apart during their lifetimes. Despite their obvious affection for one another, intense (and sometimes bitter) rivalries become increasingly evident as the action of Morning’s at Seven develops. The familial support machine is there in place and is solid, but it doesn’t always run smoothly. Despite all of their years together, the engine isn’t always “firing on all cylinders.” How is it that after all of this time there are so many things they haven’t been able to work out amongst themselves?
These women, despite their experience, have all had their fair share of difficulties. In spite of their best efforts, life hasn’t always been cooperative. Past experiences haven’t made things any easier. Although life in their world bears the initial appearance of relative calm, almost everyone in the play is revealed to be walking an emotional tightrope. One wrong move by anyone and the entire apple cart will be upset. The viewer will soon discover that their “familyscape” has long been bound together with a generous helping of duct tape and bailing wire, long overdue to come apart. For this reason, Esther’s calming presence is crucial to her family.
Esther Swanson (Esty) was nicknamed “the smartest” by her father. Esty proves time and again throughout Morning’s at Seven that she is “the rock” of the family: the lone daughter with the ability to keep everyone and everything in check—most of the time. Life through the years has often brought moments when things began to unravel for one or more members within her extended family. Whenever the equilibrium has swayed out of balance, Esty has always been the one to push the pieces back into place, doing so with love and generosity. She is a woman of strong character (she has had to be), possessing the toughest emotional fiber of anyone in the play.
Unfortunately, her husband David has never shared Esty’s passion for the rest of her family. David was once a well-respected university professor, before running his mouth off to the school’s president. He maintains an air of arrogance and snobbery, especially when it comes to his view of Esty’s simpler kin. In fact, things have now deteriorated to such a point that David has forbidden Esther to so much as visit with the “morons.” His professional confidence may have been damaged by his dismissal, but David continues to reek of intellectual elitism and cockiness. He’s determined to keep his wife apart from the rest of her brood and threatens her with marital separation within the house upon her next infraction, planning to banish Esty to the upper floor of their residence.
Cora Swanson is the second to the eldest of the Gibbs women. She lives in a home immediately next to that of a third sister, Ida Bolton. Papa Gibbs called Cora “the mildest,” and she has a tendency to internalize her troubles. She is blessed to have a husband with a terrific sense of humor. Theodore (Thor) Swanson is a jovial man, different from the others in the play. He has a tendency to take most things in life in stride, preferring to tolerate the quirkiness of everyone else’s personality rather than criticize. Of all the men in the play, Thor is the only one who possesses much bonding ability, making him Esther’s male equivalent.
Living with the Swansons is Aaronetta (Arry) Gibbs. She is the youngest, and the only unmarried sister. Labeled “the wildest” by their dad, Arry has developed a “best defense is a good offense” sort of demeanor after four decades of living with Cora and Thor. At all times, Arry has a pressing urge to know what’s going on with everyone in the family and the neighborhood and is certain to have an opinion that she will voice on every conceivable matter. Arry has cultivated an extremely defensive position, convinced that someone in the family is always doing something behind her back. She also displays a strong attachment to her sister’s husband.
Ida Bolton, tagged “the slowest,” is more timid than the other sisters. She is a devoted wife to husband Carl and mother to son Homer. She dreads the prospect of being left alone. In Morning’s at Seven she comes dangerously close to being abandoned by both of the men in her household simultaneously. Threatened by the frequent occurrence of her husband’s “spells” (which are really acute lapses of self-confidence), she is also somewhat reluctant about the idea of losing Homer to matrimony. Still, Ida has tried to do her motherly duty, encouraging him to socialize more with women.
Carl Bolton suffers through emotional peaks and valleys, worsened by the arrival of his twilight years. He agonizes continually over the misbegotten career decisions of his youth, longing to return to that “fork” in the road where he chose the wrong turn. As a result, the slightest amount of normal situational tension can send him plunging frantically into a state of panic, followed by a bout with depression.
His son, Homer, has arrived at the age of forty, positioned at his own “fork in the road.” Homer has rarely shown the slightest sign of interest toward living with anyone else, or, for that matter, anywhere outside his parents’ home. Strangely, he has maintained a steady and long-term relationship with a woman he has kept completely away from his parents. Homer has always found one reason or another not to take the next logical step in his life, and this rattles Carl, who doesn’t want to see his son make the same kind of mistakes in life that he did. Carl has undertaken the extreme action of building a house for Homer, which sits empty up on the hill—to be moved into when, and if, Homer marries.
Homer’s fiancée, Myrtle Brown, is a benignly sweet thirty-nine-year-old single working woman. Myrtle longs for her wedding day, allowing that she wouldn’t at all mind quitting her job to start a family with Homer. Carl and Ida sense that they are as close as they have ever been to hearing the news that they, and Myrtle, want to hear from Homer. Carl, naturally, is tormented by the idea that Myrtle may not think very much of him.
Myrtle’s appearance on the scene is, quite possibly, the most excitement that any of these folks have had in many a year. Indeed, her romance with Homer conjures up memories of relationships consummated in the past for all of the seniors, and, just as importantly, of opportunities missed. A melancholy aura seems to vicariously infect all of the elders, and, as a result, they suddenly can hear the clock of opportunity in life just tick, tick, ticking away. Homer and Myrtle may be facing a major crossroad in their lives, but, in actuality, so are their elders.
Within less than forty-eight hours of Myrtle’s train pulling in, the world of each character in the play is inverted: David banishes Esther to the upper floor and she decides to leave, Carl disappears, and Cora is the slimmest of threads away from taking Thor away to their new love nest. Arry and Ida are both threatened with abandonment. Homer calls off his engagement to Myrtle, who sees her opportunity for happiness slipping away. In a few moments, all of these relationships which have held up for so many years are in danger of being extinguished.
Because we are drawn by playwright Paul Osborn to see the humor in their situation, the characters in Morning’s at Seven don’t appear to be a “normal” family, and yet they probably have much more in common with most of our families than we would freely admit. Upon further inspection, the extended family of the play, on the whole, probably bears a strong resemblance to many American families. What family doesn’t get a little bit carried away in their personal lives at one time or another? In reality, all families suffer from differences of opinion, outbursts of individuality and insecurity, emotional spats, and quarrels sparked by jealousy.
In the early part of the last century, when most folks simply “stayed put,” relationships and rivalries had more time to develop. As a result, they formed with greater longevity and complexity. In today’s world, a group of siblings such as the Gibbs sisters would be more likely to part ways with one another in search of education or employment. We still carry these same family rivalries with us, but nowadays we’re more likely to share our disagreements, heartaches, and disappointments long-distance via e-mail and cellular telephones. Today’s lifestyles often make the impact of family relationships less immediate and conflicts easier to avoid or delay.
Genetics dictate that most siblings have considerable commonalities when it comes to their wants and desires in life. Because of simple human nature, it stands to reason that our yearnings may come into conflict at times. That Cora and Arry are attracted to the same man is no accident, nor is it coincidence that Carl’s son Homer doesn’t have adequate stability or acumen to determine what he really wants to do, or set a steady course toward a goal in life. Genetic factors can create the kind of personality compatibilities and oppositions that will determine the quotient of harmony and competition between children all their lives long, just as it has in Morning’s at Seven.
Still, for all of the hilarious and seemingly dysfunctional behavior we are treated to in Morning’s at Seven, the play ultimately becomes the portrait of a strong family unit that survives personal trauma. Not unlike the release of tension in the earth by a severe quake at the fault line, the ground between these houses trembles mightily in order that stability may once again be restored. Despite all of their incompatibilities, turmoil, and squabbling, by staying together this family manages to hold onto one another in order to work through troubled times. The emotional support system they have developed is strong enough to help them outlast tremendous pressure.
In the final analysis, the Gibbs Sisters offer us proof that the pitfalls engendered by a lengthy family history of unresolved issues can be overcome, albeit with varying degrees of difficulty. By maintaining their faith in the strength of the family unit, the characters in Morning’s at Seven (and most real families) have the ability to brave the storm, and resurface with their bindings intact. The function of their dysfunction is catharsis, which results in a renewed understanding of what makes the others unique and deserving of love and respect. In the end, it purges the family of whatever bad blood exists, allowing them to overcome trouble in the worst of times. Most importantly, the final unearthing of their “skeletons in the closet” enables them to extend and appreciate the most important gifts they receive—understanding and forgiveness.
Interpretation of the Play within “The Harmony Model”
The Purpose of Disharmony……..is dysfunction?
(“The function of dysfunction”!)
On the verge of our Millennium, I believe Harmony and Disharmony is the dichotomy, which could at best represent the plight of Ethiopia for the whole last century….
What has this to do with Paul Osborn’s Play…and all the more given the fact that this is a “comedy”….Is it?
Paul Osborn’s play Morning’s at seven is in between for sure a classical work – a play .
Is it really just a comedy, as the critics I encountered suggest and a family drama or more?
The short essay on it from the Utah Shakespeare Festival Forum I read under the title of
The Function of Dysfunction, By Lawrence Henley
From Insights, 2004
suggests more ….even much more than its catharsis social message, which I could fully understand….
Not only this:
Considering its date of birth….November 1939 just on the verge of the second world war, it has even, I suppose, some substance of prophecy. See the section of the drama with the total dysfunction of the family at the point of Homer ‘s engagement, when all functions and relations got defunct…
Given the fact that artists or in general great people of culture …be it an artist, a musician, an author or a play writer….mostly take the service of metaphors, idioms or allegories to have access to the intellect of their audiences, I believe the play is apt to make a higher presentation.
I would say a macro presentation of harmony and disharmony…..
Wondering whether the theme of harmony in the way I would like to interpret it, is in the Authors intention, I was delighted to find every character to fit to the “Model of Harmony”, which I am promoting during the last two –three years to understand the purpose of life. – The notion on which I am becoming more and more convinced, the more I try to nourish my intellect through the readings I am making in the sphere of philosophy and modern scientific deliberations along this line…Stretching from the four elements of the Ancients or the four causes of Aristotle to modern cosmology through social sciences like developmental psychology or even social biology up to astro- and quantum physics, with its intention of introducing a quantum-physical explanation of consciousness ( appealing to my notion on intelligence (I = h*q2 too!). I have encountered now enough philosophical and spiritual discourses supporting the four categories or the eight dimensions I postulated in the model to be surprised by the congruency of the ideas, though I have never come across them before. (Beyond my preliminary notes, it is my project, I hope, to substantiate this properly) .
Paul Osborn’s play “Morning’s at Seven” is just one of these instances….in the field of literature…( FYI ……….there are a lot in music & spiritual fields)
I would like to substantiate this along the short interpretation of the play – The Function of Dysfunction – By Lawrence Henley
From Insights, 2004
…on the Shakespeare Festival Forum…(Utah University).
At the outset for my interpretation and to follow up the allegory of the play “Morning’s at Seven’ to the “Model of Harmony”…..I would like to read the title as “The Purpose of Disharmony”.
In order to follow my point …I suggest, if you are not acquainted to the original play, you read the critic under the mentioned title…at first…..to the end to get and know the characters….(may be neglecting its allure to the American family crisis, which is irrelevant in this context).
I will make a summary here, with their essential attributes which form their personalities :
The four sisters and their corresponding families :
Esther & David —Esther (the smartest)…strong character and David, her husband….the troublemaker elitist……Esther is the positive pole and David the negative
Cora & Theodore (Thor) —Cora (the mildest)…a mild character and Thor, her husband, a cultured strong personality similar to Esther …the mediator….Therefore Thor the positive and Cora relatively the negative pole of the family.
Aaronetta (Arry), the single and youngest….Arry (the wildest)…a defensive and wild character interfering in all affairs of the family…an affinity to Thor…the strong character…
Ida & Carl—Ida (the slowest) …a timid but devoted character and a sociable mother to Homer (the son, his fiancée Myrtle) and Carl, her husband, another good for nothing similar to David, suffering from depression and emotional outbursts lamenting on his unsuccessful past…Ida is the positive and Carl the negative pole of the family.
The Gibbs family, before the four sisters went along to make their live hoods can be taken for granted to have lived in harmony dynamically interrelated and complementing each other ….the smartest …with …. the slowest ….the mildest …with ….the wildest …father …mother…etc…
There begins the play “Morning’s at Seven” staging the dynamics of the four sisters during their aging to explore the whereabouts of the original harmony….and the ensuing disharmony….in Life…
In my interpretation, Paul Osborn is staging the Harmony or disharmony of life represented at the micro level by the four sisters of the Biggs family as follows:
If we take the personifications of the four different characters of the sisters high up to the Macro level of Life, I believe we could find a rather fitting allegory to the “model of harmony” I am promoting ….
Just to recall the HARMONY MODEL the hypothesis goes like:
The Quintessence of life lies on the following planes:
The Spiritual Plane (Faith, Religion, Conscience)
The Cultural Plane (Laws, Ethics, Love)
The Material Plane (Universe, Nature , Mankind)
The Social Plane (State, Community, Family)
The quintessence of Life lying in the four planes of life is represented by the family of the four sisters….
Esther and David with their tense relation stand for the Spiritual Plane. Esther, the noble character stand for FAITH and David, the dogmatist for RELIGION and CONSCIENCE is their common relation…
Cora and Thor with their mild relation stand for the Cultural Plane. Cora, the mild temper for LAWS and Thor, the cultured tolerant personality for ETHICS and their orderly relation nurtured by LOVE, the third component of the Plane.
Arry the single non married sister with her high tempers stand as a totality for the Material Plane. The point of Arry’s cultivation of self defence is indicative of the material aspect of life in its totality. The UNIVERSE and NATURE with MANKIND and its evolutional struggle for survival…Arry’s affinity with Thor (the intelligent) is not accidental but has I think the purpose of indicating the alliance of Intelligence with Energy for an ultimate Harmony of Life…
At last, Ida and Carl, with their son Homer and his fiancée, Myrtle, the complicated; are the most apparent allegory of the Social Plane. Ida, the slow, the sociable and the devoted mother, who dreads solitude, is a well-formed personification of the COMMUNITY in the social plane; whereas Carl, her husband , with his “spells” , outbursts, emotional peaks and valleys , self agonized by his own past, giving the off springs (Homer and his fiancée) a hard time cannot be missed at all, that he is meant to personify the STATE, (especially the state on the verge of WWII). Homer stands for FAMILY as the common interface (of the social plane) making sure that the bondage of the family remains intact.
Having this allegory in mind, needless to mention that the play is staging the futility of disharmony, there by inverting the comedy represented by the relation of the four sisters at the surface, into a tragedy of mankind which shows how the missing harmony between and within the different four planes of life amounts to an ultimate existential danger. The irrational background of the disharmony, which perhaps was a prophecy of Paul Osborn on the ensuing WWII, is indicated in the final development of the relation between Homer and Myrtle conditioned by the rest of the members of the Gibbs family…read mankind …The Human Family in Disharmony speeding towards destruction…..with the new generation on board….
See how, out of the blues, irrationality has taken over all through the family inverting all relations just before the new generation (Homer and Myrtle) begins its own drive.
The new generation, in the person of Homer and Myrtle giving up their engagement and love, is sacrificed in the interest of WAR. I.e. FAMILY lost its protection function and purpose.
David has opted to live alone banning Esther; i.e. FAITH (Esther) is abandoned to a higher Realm and RELIGION prevails in the form of a dogma. Without faith, the philosophical component, the Spiritual Plane is at its climax of Disharmony. Carl disappears abandoning Ida altogether; i.e. STATE does not function in its normal way. It is a state of exception. The STATE/Carl is no more at the service of the COMMUNITY/Ida. A period of war. Arry’s condition is as well at stake. In the person of Arry, the material Plane as a whole is on the verge of destruction. War is a threat to MANKIND, NATURE and in effect to the UNIVERSE too, ushering a period of total disharmony. Cora has managed to take her Thor in her love nest. I.e. though “in the slimmest of threads” and insignificant, LAWS may survive taking refuge in the sphere of ETHICS, with LOVE as the survival pole of the two. A precautious wisdom lying behind the Cultural Plane.
The dramatic turn of the play, within 48 hours, was thus meant to indicate WAR, whose proponents, are Religion in its dogmatic feature and STATE in its no LAWS state of exception, victimising the COMMUNITY and Ethics, FAMILY and Love and the Material Plane (Mankind, Nature & the Universe) as a whole.
Now after deciphering the metaphor, it only remains to ask why or can it be blessed as a catharsis?
Is the function of dysfunction really always a catharsis? Is the purpose of disharmony the latter as well? In the aftermath, if ever it has ended up well, may be in the spirit of appeasing and limiting it …but not in the sense of declaring it as necessary, since it is never worth the sacrifice……War is never a solution but was always an unfortunate material and human condition lacking intelligence . PEACE is nevertheless always an alternative and given the fact of disharmony as a condition of life in motion, the method is a continuous containment of the latter by means of Harmony….Life is full of forces in favour of harmony to promote the development of mankind towards perfection….On our long path towards ……………THE ABSOLUTE…
The destiny of Ethiopia today on the verge of its Millennium can also not be different. We Should make an end to the plight of disharmony, which has engulfed all our space in our vicinity for at least the last century…
Long live Ethiopia…&…Happy New Year!
PS. Reflection tip: Key for Ethio-characters: 1. David for the “prof”, Esther / Opposition; 2. Cora/the rule of law with Thor for traditional values/Makonnen+ etc.; 3. Ary for nature in its destructive moment/Dergue etc /& mankind indicating to “the generation of emotion”.; 4. Carl for Melesse’s regime, with Ida as the community and the off-springs/the new generation